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Skiing

Skiing is a recreational activity and competitive sport in which the participant attaches long runners or skis to boots or shoes on the feet and uses them to travel on top of snow. Aside from recreation and competition, skiing has been used for military purposes and travelling in areas that experience heavy snowfall. Until about 1860 skiing was primarily used for practical transport purposes in snow-rich areas, from around 1860 skiing for recreation, exercise and competition was introduced. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and the International Ski Federation.



Alpine

Also called downhill skiing, alpine skiing typically takes place at a ski resort or dry slope. It originated in the European Alps, and is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot. Sub-genres of alpine skiing include:
  • Freestyle
  • Heliskiing 
Competitive classes include:
  • slalom 
  • giant slalom 
  • Super-G
  • Downhill
  • disabled skiing
In alpine skiing, for every 1000 people skiing in a day, on average between two and four will require medical attention. Knee injuries account for 33 percent of injuries. Most accidents are the result of user error leading to an isolated fall.



Nordic

Cross-country or backcountry skiing is the oldest form of skiing and was developed in Scandinavia as a way of traveling over snow. It uses free-heel bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Various specialties of competitive or recreational skiing developed from this basic style, sub-genres of Nordic skiing include:
  • Cross-country skiing
  • Telemark
  • Ski touring
  • Ski mountaineering
  • Ski-flying and ski jumping
  • Skijoring

Best skier: HERMANN MAIER


Nagano crash, 1998